The book on my shelf is _ATM Theory and Application_ by McDysan and
Spohn, 1994, ISBN 0-07-060362-6
The technical meat of it is in Part 5: Traffic
Management, Congestion Control and Traffic Management
Chapter 12: The Traffic Contract
Chapter 13: Traffic Control
Chapter 14: Congestion Control
The whole ATM experience is an interesting
reference point. The objectives were technically and practically sound. They
got off to a good start - Reducing all data streams to a series of 53 byte
cells does make traffic engineering a tractable problem. ATM is no more complex
than it needs to be. And yet the complexity turns out to be untenable and cost
prohibitive in most non-telecom applications.
Sent: Wednesday, September 28,
2005 8:32 AM
To: Gross, Kevin
Subject: Re: [RE] On worst-case
latency for Ethernet networks and alternat ive shaping concept
I recognize all issues you mentioned with occupation map. It is a raw idea and
needs work to hash out details and realize all limitations. My general feeling,
not supported by any research so far, is that if we limit number of
latency-bound streams to a manageable number it could work.
would be very interested to peek into ATM designs - this is a new area for me.
I would hate spending my time on inventing yet another bicycle :)
you recommend some good references to read on ATM?
09/27/2005 01:21 PM
"Gross, Kevin" <kevin.gross@CIRRUS.COM>
Re: [RE] On worst-case latency for Ethernet
networks and alternat ive shaping concept
Thanks for your contributions. Your proof on worst case
latency appears to be sound. Subtracting best case from worst case latency
gives us a measure of latency variation (dv). My algebraic derivation of that
is dv=(n-1)Nt. Latency variation is an important metric that tells us how much
buffering is required at receivers.
You occupation map is an interesting idea. I’m sure we
all recognize that the synchronization accuracy requirement dictates special
hardware to time transmissions. One con with this scheme that you’ve not
mentioned is that the dynamic nature of the occupation map problem needs to be
considered. It’s fine to examine the map and time your transmissions
appropriately. Once begun, your own transmissions will alter the occupation map
in ways that may be difficult to predict. This effect has the potential to turn
this into a recursive problem with potential stability issues. Furthermore
you’ll probably need to reevaluate your transmission timing whenever the
occupation map changes – i.e. anyone else stops or starts transmitting.
In the time between the changes and your response to them, network performance
will suffer and data may be lost.
If we want to continue down this road on pacing and traffic
shaping, I suggest the group spend some time reviewing the history of ATM
development and deployment. We’re trying to solve the same problems here
in the same general way.
From: Max Azarov
Sent: Monday, September 26, 2005 9:27 AM
Subject: [RE] On worst-case latency for Ethernet networks and
alternative shaping concept
on our previous call somebody (I believe it was Geoff) have expressed a desire
to have an exact worst-case latency formula. Since I couldn't find anything
readily available on the topic, I've took up on an exercise in algebra and
formal logic to come up with the formula. Please see the link to the document
with formula and the proof.
I also sensed the general agreement that it would be beneficial to come
up with alternatives to "shaping" as it is proposed at the moment.
While studying the subject it would appear that such solution is possible to
get. In particular I would suggest a synchronized network access, which can
also be called "orchestra"-concept.
In essence idea is that all nodes use precisely synchronized wall clock to
orchestrate a predictable network access, thus making is possible to reduce
latencies to the levels well below suggested in the attached paper. Very
similar to orchestra which has to tune for the same frequency and tempo in
order to play a piece, end-nodes and routers "tune" onto the same
time/schedule before than can play a melody... well, provide predictable
propagation delay in our case.
When reserving a path end node would look at the topology and "occupation
map" along the communication route to determine latency it can be
expecting. This "occupation map" would essentially consist of
time-slots and number of streams passing through this output port at this slot.
Each router/output port has such map and client can access it. Using this
information client can determine its own transmission schedule producing the
least latency (most empty slots) and decide whether this is satisfactory for
Essentially this is a fusion between a conventional isochronous access
arbitration and conventional best-effort absence of arbitration with
compromises made to achieve a simple router design. Obviously number of details
need to be worked out, such as interaction between streams occupying the same
time slot on given the switch/output port and between neighboring slots.
1) No changes are need in traffic routing algorithms. All burden of arbitration
is distributed to end-points.
2) Deterministic latency guarantees are possible.
1) Limited scalability. Here we need to acknowledge that scalability for ResE
is not a prime target. We have to sacrifice something to get a cheap router.
2) Relatively precise time synchronization (probably within 10s of
microseconds) has to occur before latency-bound traffic is possible.
This is another
compromise that has to be made. I think that it may be acceptable to expect
real-time traffic service hick-ups when backbone configuration changes (i.e.
clock-master is disconnected). Even local buses such as IEE1394 require bus
reset under certain topology changes.
3) Assumes that routers have high degree of determinism in routing traffic (SW
routers will not do).
In addition, we could use lower 802.1 priority for traffic which is not overly
sensitive to the latency, i.e. traffic which is OK with worst-case figures. I'd
imagine that stored video playback and even life TV would be good candidates.
Feedback on both paper and "orchestra" concept would be greatly